Here is a high level overview of the complete process I usually go through. I noted some details for each phase, of course things might shift based on each project, scope, and time available. I am very passion about UX, I just happen to be also passionate about, and am rooted in visual design. I tend to do and have done both, along side a great team.
Look into innovations, existing technologies, augmentations, features, and possible elements that can be incorporated.
Create personas based on user interviews, and map out the current path of a user, and how it could be improved.
Brainstorm visual concepts with the UX/creative team and come up with visual ideas and style. Possibly create mood boards.
Sketch or whiteboard low-mid fidelity wireframes for each screen/device. Look into basic content types and user flows.
Create low-high fidelity mockups of concepts showing detailed UI elements, overall style, user flows, imagery and art direction.
Develop page styles, mood boards, image assets and visual direction that align with and enhance the brand.
Create style guides during and after the design process incorporating fonts, colors, icons, imagery, and other visual requirements.
Interview users to pin-point issues, errors, enjoyment, or easy to use. Gage expectations of how the product will perform.
If only problems were this easy to solve, but do solutions really have to be convoluted? There are a millions ways an end product can become off kilter. Opinions from the client, the designer, back end limitations, lack of user testing, team biases can all result in affecting the UI/UX process. On a positive note, good UX practices, referencing solid design principles, and having a comprehensive look at the end goal can align the most disparate of teams, and create a happy user experience.